About EFC – FC – CC applications

High salinity water streams are created in a wide range of industries. The available technologies for processing high salinity streams, such as evaporative crystallization and membrane filtration have limitations imposed by scaling, TDS inlet limits,  higher energy consumption, nor can they handle crystallization of more than one component next to the ice. Evaporative technology in general, is not suitable for processing streams with heat sensitive components.

The applications of our technologies can be divided in two categories:


Industrial (aqueous) process streams often contain valuable dissolved  components which can be crystallised, separated and even commercialised, thus adding value and reducing the volume and handling costs of such streams.

Removing the water, in the form of ice, from a stream, will give a quality concentrate which is much easier to handle due to its reduced volume.


Volume reduction and the separation of undesired dissolved components from a waste stream are both strong incentives for considering low temperature crystallization for treating any industrial waste stream.

We can reach up to 90% (or even more) volume reduction, depending on the composition of a given stream and by removing both water (ice) and crystallised salts from the solution, Zero Liquid Discharge is facilitated.

Our case studies with EFC, FC and CC technologies applications can be downloaded here.